As an insurance provider, ABA agencies must learn a whole new set of terms. To help you navigate, we put together a list of the most common insurance terms used by ABA providers.
The beneficiary is enrolled in a health insurance plan and receives benefits through those policies.
Benefit refers to the amount payable by the insurance company to a claimant, assignee, or beneficiary when the insured suffers a loss.
The certificate of insurance is a printed description of the benefits and coverage provisions forming the contract between the carrier and the customer. It discloses what is covered, what is not, and dollar limits.
A claim is a request by an individual (or his or her provider) to an individual’s insurance company for the insurance company to pay for services obtained from a health care professional.
Coinsurance refers to money that an individual is required to pay for services, after a deductible has been paid. In some health care plans, co-insurance is called “copayment.” Coinsurance is often specified by a percentage. For example, the employee pays 20 percent toward the charges for a service and the employer or insurance company pays 80 percent.
Copayment is a predetermined (flat) fee that an individual pays for health care services, in addition to what the insurance covers. For example, some HMOs require a $10 copayment for each office visit, regardless of the type or level of services provided during the visit. Copayments are not usually specified by percentages.
The deductible is the amount an individual must pay for health care expenses before insurance (or a self-insured company) covers the costs. Often, insurance plans are based on yearly deductible amounts.
Employer-sponsored health plans currently provide some level of health coverage for approximately 160 million Americans. Employer-sponsored health plans are more likely to be provided by larger companies; in fact, an estimated 99 percent of companies with 200 or more workers offer health benefits.
A health insurance exchange mechanism is a key provision of health reform legislation, established to provide a selection of competing providers, each offering different qualified plans. All qualified plans must meet standards established and enforced by the Health Choices Administration. For instance, participating plans will not be allowed to discriminate against applicants based on health history or future risk. Competition between the plan providers would, in theory, encourage the providers to improve the quality and pricing of offered plans.
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) is a federal law that sets minimum standards for pension plans in private industry. ERISA does not require any employer to establish a pension plan. It only requires that those who establish plans must meet certain minimum standards. The law generally does not specify how much money a participant must be paid as a benefit. ERISA requires plans to regularly provide participants with information about the plan including information about plan features and funding; sets minimum standards for participation, vesting, benefit accrual and funding; requires accountability of plan fiduciaries; and gives participants the right to sue for benefits and breaches of fiduciary duty.
An exclusion is a provision within a health insurance policy that eliminates coverage for certain acts, property, types of damage or locations.
An explanation of benefits is the insurance company’s written explanation regarding a claim showing what they paid and what the client must pay. The document is sometimes accompanied by a benefits check.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) allows persons to qualify immediately for comparable health insurance coverage when they change their employment or relationships. It also creates the authority to mandate the use of standards for the electronic exchange of health care data; to specify what medical and administrative code sets should be used within those standards; to require the use of national identification systems for health care patients, providers, payers (or plans), and employers (or sponsors); and to specify the types of measures required to protect the security and privacy of personally identifiable health care.
HMOs – Health maintenance organizations represent “pre-paid” or “capitated” insurance plans in which individuals or their employers pay a fixed monthly fee for services instead of a separate charge for each visit or service. The monthly fees remain the same, regardless of types or levels of services provided. Services are provided by physicians who are employed by, or under contract with, the HMO. HMOs vary in design. Depending on the type of the HMO, services may be provided in a central facility, or in a physician’s own office.
In-network refers to providers or health care facilities that are part of a health plan’s network of providers with which it has negotiated a discount. Insured individuals usually pay less when using an in-network provider, because those networks provide services at lower cost to the insurance companies with which they have contracts.
Lifetime Max – the maximum amount a health plan will pay in benefits to an insured individual during that individual’s lifetime.
Maximum Dollar – The maximum amount of money that an insurance company (or self-insured company) will pay for claims within a specific time period. Maximum dollar limits vary greatly. They may be based on or specified in terms of types of illnesses or types of services. Sometimes they are specified in terms of lifetime, sometimes for a year.
Network – A group of doctors, hospitals and other health care providers contracted to provide services to insurance companies customers for less than their usual fees. Provider networks can cover a large geographic market or a wide range of health care services. Insured individuals typically pay less for using a network provider.
Out-of-Network – This phrase usually refers to physicians, hospitals or other health care providers who are considered nonparticipants in an insurance plan (usually an HMO or PPO). Depending on an individual’s health insurance plan, expenses incurred by services provided by out-of-plan health professionals may not be covered, or covered only in part by an individual’s insurance company.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) – also known as the Affordable Care Act or ACA – is the landmark health reform legislation passed by the 111th Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in March 2010. The legislation includes a long list of health-related provisions that began taking effect in 2010 and will continue to be rolled out for the next 4 years. Key provisions are intended to extend coverage to millions of uninsured Americans, to implement measures that will lower health care costs and improve system efficiency, and to eliminate industry practices that include rescission and denial of coverage due to pre-existing conditions.
A preferred provider organization (PPO) is a managed care organization of health providers who contract with an insurer or third-party administrator (TPA) to provide health insurance coverage to policy holders represented by the insurer or TPA. Policy holders receive substantial discounts from health care providers who are partnered with the PPO. If policy holders use a physician outside the PPO plan, they typically pay more for the medical care.
Provider is a term used for health professionals who provide health care services. Sometimes, the term refers only to physicians. Often, however, the term also refers to other health care professionals such as hospitals, nurse practitioners, chiropractors, physical therapists, and others offering specialized health care services.
Usual and Customary Fee – The average fee charged by a particular type of health care practitioner within a geographic area. The term is often used by medical plans as the amount of money they will approve for a specific test or procedure. If the fees are higher than the approved amount, the individual receiving the service is responsible for paying the difference. Sometimes, however, if an individual questions his or her physician about the fee, the provider will reduce the charge to the amount that the insurance company has defined as reasonable and customary.
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